by Jose Gregorio Baquero



Dark Energy and Gravity Qualitative Analysis

Dark Energy is by far the largest contributor to the universe total energy density. It is radically different to any other phenomenon in nature that we have some familiarity with the exception of Gravity. It is not that we understand gravity but at least we are familiar with it. Dark Energy quanta is emitted on each quantum of spacetime and its density is constant in space (it may change in time); likewise Gravity quanta  can be “emitted” from any quantum of spacetime but in contrast its “emitted” value varies depending on how much energy density that point of space time is been crossed by. Lastly, Dark Energy is responsible for the expansion of the universe by stretching in equal proportions the spacetime fabric; it is the creator of new space. On the other hand Gravity compresses the spacetime fabric; it is the compressor of existing space.

Let’s suppose that the quanta of Dark Energy, Darktons, move in the 3 spatial dimensions and the one time dimension (s=3,t=1). Like gravitational waves, their movement can be visualized as expanding spherical objects in spacetime (similar to how sound waves, shock waves, and pressure waves propagate). The Darkton radius would increase at causality speed (c). In contrast photons, bosons, all matter particles, (galaxies, stars, planets, atoms, fermions) move in one spatial dimension (straight lines on curved space-time) and one time dimension (s=1,t=1). Even though you can navigate 3 dimensional spaces you do so by moving on just one spatial dimension at a time.

Now we could infer that quanta of the Gravitational Energy, Gravitons, would also move in the 3 spatial dimensions and the one time dimension(s=3,t=1).

Darktons and Gravitons nature would make them almost impossible to detect experimentally with current technology since the detectors are designed to detect particles moving in s=1,t=1. It is uncertain at this time if this idea and others inspired by it will set the bases for a new technology that eventually can detect them.

What Would be the Relativistic Equivalent Mass for Entities that Move in s=3,t=1?

We can derive the kinetic energy for entities that move in s=3,t=1 using the work-energy theorem and adding Newton’s second law of motion. The variation on the kinetic energy for an object that moves symmetrically and simultaneously in s=3,t-=1 would be the work done by a force on a volume of a sphere U while its volume varies:

 Kinetic Energy Revised

Following the steps to how  is derived from the apparent change in mass for an object moving at a constant speed in one spatial dimension and one time dimension (s=1,t-=1) we can infer that the mass of an object moving in 3 spatial dimensions and one time dimension (s=3,t=1) apparently changes as:energy-equivalence


Could this Solve the Cosmological Constant Problem i.e. Vacuum Catastrophe (in part)?

 It seems that because Einstein removed his cosmological constant from his field equations after Hubble’s discovery of the expanding universe it was forgotten for a while. Cosmologist put it back to its place when Dark Energy was discovered. For the new scientists the misreading of the nature of Dark Energy (Leffert’s, E(vac) different to mc^2)gets them Vacuum Energy Density results that are (c^2)/k times smaller than they actually should be (in joules/cubic meter). The problem would be difficult to spot because without understanding this energy nature, the tools by which all cosmological results would be calculated would get deformed results in equal proportions and nothing weird is perceived; that is until confronted with predictions and calculations from QED, SED and other scenarios (Margan’s “Estimating the Vacuum Energy Density”). 


Final Thoughts

There would be several revisions needed in current accepted cosmology based on the findings of this hypothesis. Also, the nature of the Quantum of Dark Energy (Darkton) and that of Gravity (Graviton) could be that of the same entity and the whole Dark Energy-Gravity relationship would be a case of emission-absorption by the quantum of spacetime. If that would not be the case, for the purpose of this article the graviton as negative energy carrier would suffice the author’s intellectual curiosity temporarily. Einstein was right and his finding keep continue to enlighten our understanding of the universe.



 1          Einstein, A. (1905), “Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?”, Annalen der Physik, English Version

2          Einstein, A. “Relativity: the Special and General Theory by Albert Einstein”.               Project Gutenberg. 2

3          Leffert, C.” Resolution of the Vacuum Energy Problem”. https://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0308/0308014.pdf

4          Margan, E.”Estimating the Vacuum Energy Density”. http://www-f9.ijs.si/~margan/Articles/vacuum_energy_density.pdf

5          https://www.integral-calculator.com










  1. The Universe is a Quaternion space ala Hamilton, [r,V].
    Dark energy =cP, the vector energy.
    Stationary Universe
    0=[vp/r – cp/r, cdP/dr – Del vp]
    0=[vp/r – cp/r, mdV/dt + muR/r^3]
    Universe is Stationary not expanding. Hubble did not believe redshift indicated doppler.
    62km/s/Mpc=c/R gives R=150GPm.

    Dark matter effect is cP and electromagnetism. Stars are charged and rotating and moving charges create magnetic field B.
    F=q[c,V][,B]=q[,cB + VxB]
    qVxB=VxP/r gives.
    P=mV=qBr and V=qBr/m=quI/m
    V=25e/3m uI this is the homopolar motor, wattmeter!

    Electrons flowing into the Galaxy causes the over gravity rotation.
    See The Universe is Electric on Amazon by Wardell Lindsay.


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